The ketone diet is a low carb menu, medium protein, high fat. Clinical studies have shown that the keto diet brings results that have not previously been achieved without drugs for the treatment of diabetes, epilepsy, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
The Keto Diet: Learn More About Nutrition and Ketosis
The purpose of a ketogenic diet is to force the body to use fat as its main source of energy. Usually, this process takes place differently: the carbohydrates that come into the food are processed into glucose - the basis of the brain’s function and nutrition, as well as the cellular structure of other organs. By limiting the amount of carbohydrates, the liver converts fats into ketone bodies.
Experts recommend following a ketogenic diet in the following cases:
- diabetes, epilepsy and autism;
- Alzheimer's disease and brain tumor;
- stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease and Charcot's disease;
- schizophrenia, head trauma and hyperactivity;
- obesity, irritable bowel syndrome and tremor;
- Cardiovascular disease and respiratory failure.
To understand how the keto diet works in the body, you need to understand the process of ketosis. To be fully functional, humans need a sufficient amount of energy in ATP format (a universal source that is mandatory for biochemical processes). On average, you need about 1800 kcal per day. The brain consumes about 400 kcal - that’s 100 g of glucose. What happens to the body when carbohydrates are almost completely excluded from the diet?
Ketosis is a process that uses fat as its main source of energy while minimizing carbohydrates. Without further effort as a natural process, similar changes can be observed in the body during infancy and in women during pregnancy.
In ketosis, insulin levels fall and fatty acids leave large amounts of adipose tissue. The oxidation process takes place in the liver, where ketones (organic matter) are formed - the body’s energy sources. They penetrate the blood-brain barrier and nourish the brain cells.
Considering biochemical processes in more detail, you should pay special attention to the process of "fat burning". In this case, the fatty acid molecules are converted to acetyl-CoA. This element combines with oxaloacetate to cause the Krebs cycle, which occurs in the mitochondria of cells. As a result of this process, substances that are important for vital activity are formed.
Reducing sugar and insulin has a positive effect on the health of internal organs and systems. Ketosis is a safer process than glucose metabolism, as in this case no free radicals are formed, which is essential in old age. Ketones are automatically produced in the body if the diet uses less than 30 grams of carbohydrates per day and 0, 8-1, 5 grams of protein per 1 kg of body weight. However, good quality saturated fats are needed in sufficient quantities (butter, egg yolk, fat and fat).
The benefits of ketones for our body include:
- Internal organs and tissues (heart, brain, kidneys) function much more efficiently.
- A healthy heart is surrounded by thick adipose tissue without which it does not beat well.
- The brain works 25% more efficiently than it does with blood glucose.
Ketones are ideal fuels for cellular structures, non-destructive and non-inflammatory. They do not glycate, that is, they do not contribute to the aging of cells and do not shorten human life. Healthy ketosis starves cancer cells and increases mitochondrial function to produce more energy in a more reliable and sustainable way.
The difference between a ketogenic diet and a low carb diet
Only regular carbohydrate deficiency allows ketosis to be achieved. This process becomes definitive and is characterized by a noticeable increase in the levels of ketone bodies in the blood. In the case of a low-carbohydrate diet, such processes are not observed, as the amount of carbohydrates and fats that enter the body with food per day is sufficient for energy requirements.
When we talk about the keto diet, this nutritional system is designed to synthesize large amounts of ketones in the liver and use them as fuel. In ketosis caused by nutritional correction, the indicators reached the level of 0, 5-3, 0 mM / L. To determine the amount of ketones, you can use special test strips that are sold at the pharmacy. This is not possible with a low carb diet.
A ketogenic diet affects the body on several levels at once. Mitochondria were originally created as an energy source from dietary fats. At the same time, the toxin load on the cells is reduced and the amount of free radicals (waste) is reduced. Mitochondrial health is one of the most important keys to optimal health. The best way to maintain proper balance is with a ketogenic diet.
Ketogenic diet indications:
- Diabetes - Decreased insulin levels, increased mitochondriogenesis and increased insulin sensitivity.
- Risk of developing cardiovascular disease (cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood) - increasing the size of LDL and lowering insulin levels.
- Being overweight - reducing appetite, reducing lipogenesis and reducing energy consumption due to the heat effect of proteins.
- Epilepsy - suppression of the excitability of neurons and the anticonvulsant effect of ketones.
Not scientifically proven, but most experts claim that the keto diet helps treat acne and neurological conditions. Ketosis is effective against polycystic diseases and cancer.
What is the "adaptation phase"?
Numerous reviews of the ketogenic diet indicate that after a change in diet, consciousness becomes blurred, health deteriorates, and energy is lost. It’s about adaptation that lasts for the first few weeks from the start of your diet. This is due to the fact that the enzymes needed for a lifetime are not enough, so the oxidation processes are slower.
The body is reorganized in the "adaptation phase" to use other energy sources. The internal organs do not absorb carbohydrates but ketone bodies by breaking down fats from food. The condition of the body does not return to normal after 4-6 weeks.
Results of clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet:
- Improving body composition. A keto diet consumes 10, 000 calories less per day than a regular diet. However, every day you lose weight against the background of a decrease in body fat.
- Decreases performance under high intensity loads. In the first 30 days after changing the diet, the ability to exercise intensely decreases. This is due to the fact that intramuscular and liver glycogen are reduced.
- Reduction of intramuscular reserves. It is characterized by a decrease in glucose from food. It is accompanied by a decrease in the rate of recovery of the body and the ability to build muscle mass.
The conclusion is obvious - a ketogenic diet is optimal and effective for healing the body, but cannot be used for muscle building. Ketosis is an irreplaceable process that can help you lose weight with health benefits.
The keto diet is widely used by athletes who engage in cyclical sports that require endurance (cycling, triathlon, marathon, etc. ). This is due to the fact that during ketosis, the body burns fat efficiently for energy production, which allows it to save available glycogen stores during excessive respiratory stress.
If the diet is properly formulated, the result of the ketone diet will come in 2-3 weeks. After 1-2 years, the condition improves in 90% of cases. If you make a mistake, a positive effect can never happen.
Permitted oils and fats
Foods that contain these elements are essential elements of the keto diet.
You need to eat the right fats, except for the unhealthy ones:
- monounsaturated (macadamia nuts, avocado, olive oil, egg yolk);
- polyunsaturated (fatty fish and animal protein).
It is not acceptable to include trans fats in the diet - processed foods that have undergone a hydrogenation process to increase shelf life, such as margarine.
The balance of omega-3 (mussels, trout, tuna, krill and salmon) and omega-6 (walnut, almond, pine nuts, corn and sunflower oil) is important. It is recommended to eat small amounts of fatty meats and fish.
Products should be fried in beef fat, coconut or ghee. This approach to cooking allows for more essential fatty acids.
Protein in the keto diet
The higher the concentration of a given substance in a product, the less it must be consumed. It is better to give preference to meat fed to grasses and pastures. This eliminates the possibility of consuming steroids and harmful bacteria. Dark meats (poultry) are preferred.
Keep in mind that too much protein can reduce ketone synthesis and increase glucose production. The diet should include food with a maximum protein content of 35%, which should be balanced with sauces and rich side dishes. For example, lean beef should be consumed with fatty cheese. Pork can replace lamb without compromising ketosis.
Useful fish are cod, trout, tuna, catfish and mackerel. It is essential to add mussels (crab, lobster, oysters, squid or mussels) to the diet. Chicken eggs are an important protein carrier. It is best to buy the product from free range chickens. Useful poultry - duck, chicken, pheasant; offal - tongue, liver and heart.
Fruits and vegetables for ketosis
Avoid plant foods high in glucose. The best vegetables are those that are high in nutrients and low in carbohydrates (leafy and green). Highlighting asparagus, peppers, broccoli, spinach, cauliflower and brussels sprouts.
Underground vegetables should be restricted as they store carbohydrates. Recommended for frying, for example, onions and carrots. Small amounts of citrus fruits, berries (blueberries, blackberries and raspberries), night strawberries (eggplant and tomatoes) and root vegetables (mushrooms, garlic, parsnips) can be used.
Dairy products for the keto diet
Whole milk should only be consumed with the main meal. In this case, moderation is important. Preference should be given to organic raw dairy products. If you are lactose intolerant, stick to hard cheeses.
Among the healthy foods recommended for a ketogenic diet are:
- Whipped cream and Greek yogurt
- homemade mayonnaise and soft cheese (brie, mozzarella);
- cheese parmesan, cheddar, doorman;
- sour cream, cottage cheese, cream nuts, mascarpone.
Dairy products are widely used in sauces and greasy garnishes. To reduce body weight, it is advisable to limit these foods to the keto diet.
Drinks and water for ketone production
The goal of a ketogenic diet is to create a natural diuretic effect. Therefore, most people have dried up. It is recommended to drink at least 4 liters of water a day to eliminate the possibility of adverse effects on the body.
Keep in mind that caffeine leads to fluid loss in the body, so energetic drinks (tea and coffee) should be reduced to 2 cups a day. To eliminate the likelihood of developing the keto flu typical of an improper keto diet, you need to learn how to make up for the electrolyte deficiency. To do this, you need to drink bone broth, which can be replaced with stevia or sucralose sports drinks.